Summer School cum Workshop on ‘Water and Waste water Treatment’
Day 1 – Inauguration of Workshop (21-05-2015)
Summer School cum Workshop on ‘Water and Waste water Treatment’ was inaugurated by Prof. Rajeev Sangal, Director, IIT (BHU) Varanasi, at 10:30 Am in the Entrepreneurship Hall, Malaviya Centre for Innovation, Incubation & Entrepreneurship (MCIIE), IIT (BHU) Varanasi.
Prof. Rajeev Sangal emphasized upon lifestyle in harmony with nature to save our precious water resources. He said that the bottled water is greatest threat as they are not only exploiting our economic resources but also making us unconcerned about our surface water reservoirs and in result they are depleted or destroyed. The littering of all the plastic objects is itself a problem and by an estimate a small amount of littered plastic needs Rs. 100/- to reach recycling site. Government should think of legally imposing ‘Buyback’ scheme on all plastic products to make our soil and water clean. If a person buys a bottle of Rs. 20/- and returns the bottle after use, he should get Rs.5/- and this in turn will change our habit.
Dr. Sandeep Pandey, Guest of Honour of the function and ‘Magsaysay’ awardee warned against excessive exploitation of ground resources and reckless disposal of its waste water which results into depletion and destruction of this precious resource. He specially mentioned the case of coca cola in Varanasi and mining in Sonbhadra.
Prof. Rajeshwar Acharya explained the philosophy of ‘Samyak Jeevan’ wherein, water was not considered commodity but the God’s gift and that was the reason in ancient India the water reservoirs were flourishing and were revered like the temples. But the changing habit and western mindset played havoc on these resources resulting in their complete destruction and Varanasi is a classic example of that.
Pandit Hari Ram Dwivedi has recited two poems on River Ganges, significance of water resources and their importance in human life.
The theme of the workshop was described and explained by Prof. S. N. Upadhyay, Former Director, IIT (BHU) Varanasi.
Prof. P. K. Mishra, Converner – SSWWT 2015 and Coordinator, MCIIE welcomed the participants & guests and discussed in detail the significance of initiatives taken by MCIIE. Regarding to him ‘Jal hi Jeevan Hai’, this concept will be inculcated in the participants during the workshop.
Dr. Nand Lal Singh, Joint Organizing Secretary-SSWWT 2015, gave formal vote of thanks.
The prominent person present in the inaugural function Prof. P. N. Tiwari, Prof. Devndra Mohan, Dr. S. K. Sharma, Dr. M. K. Mondal, Dr. Ram Vijay Singh, Dr Awdhesh Dixit, Sh. D. S. Mishra etc.
In the 1st technical session in the afternoon on 21st May 2015, Prof. S. N. Upadhyay dwelt in detail about the dependency of human life on hydrological circle. He also discussed about the limiting understanding of science in regard to magnimity of the universe.
Two documentaries were also shown to the participants, “Why we Indians are so filthy”, truly represents the Indian psyche and it also reflects why even in Singapore the Indian locality is so filthy. We stats with ‘Me first philosophy’ without anticipating applause or reward from Government. Hence it gave a ray of hope, we can create desired change in the system.
Day 2 – (22-05-2015)
In the 1st session, Dr. Nand Lal Singh, Dept. of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, BHU, discussed in detail about measurement and significance of water quality criteria parameters. He emphasized upon the importance of physical, chemical and biological parameters being used for characterization of potable and waste water. He clarified, why certain parameters are specific to only waste water such as, BOD, COD etc. Various techniques and instruments being used for characterization of water viz. AAS, Spectrophotometer, GC, Nephlometer etc, were also discussed by him.
In the 2nd session Dr. M. K. Mondal of Chemical Engineering, IIT (BHU) Varanasi, emphasized on the importance of every drop of water whether fresh or waste. In today’s world, large quantity of waste water is being re-generated, so water crisis can only be solved when we look towards this waste water as a resource. He discussed all the advance treatment techniques viz. membrane, ion—exchange, absorption etc. He warned against the use of RO for potable water treatment as treated water is devoid of minerals and it generates large quantity of waste water.
In the 3rd session, Prof. G. P. Singh, Community Medicine Department of Institute of Medical Sciences, BHU, discussed the utility of statistical tools and techniques for data analysis, screening and presentation. The wrong assumption and treatment of data may lead to gross misinterpretation of actual condition.
Prof. S. N. Upadhyay and Prof. P. K. Mishra coordinated the session.
Day 3 – (23-05-2015)
In the 1st session, Prof. S. K. Mishra, Ex-Professor of Civil Engineering Department, IIT (BHU), highlighted and compared the global scenario and Indian scenario pertaining to water resources and water availability. Comparing the population and available water, Prof. Mishra emphasized that per- capita availability of fresh water is continuously decreasing in all countries and India has now become a water stressed country. Several areas have become water scarce, also while discussing the water consumption pattern in India in the irrigation, industry and domestic sectors, Prof. Mishra stated that 90 % of water is used for irrigation out of which about 60% comes from ground water. He stated that the use of surface water for irrigation has grown slowly whereas the extraction of ground water has increased alarmingly. The major reason for this is freedom for setting up tube wells which is further compounded by the subsidy. Around 40% of the water diverted through canals is wasted and flooding irrigation system also wastes a lot of water, this has to be discouraged. He also emphasized that most of the rain water coming during monsoon period is lost as it flows to oceans due to inadequate storage. There is a critical need of storage in reservoirs, utilization through check dams and also direct recharging into the ground water aquifers. This is necessary because the area under irrigation at present is just about 40% of the cultivable land in India and this has to expand in future to meet the food requirements.
In the 2nd session, Prof. J. Pandey, Botany, BHU emphasized that water is life. It is essential for oxygen balance in the atmosphere through photosynthesis process. For producing various types of vegetables, grains etc. water is essential. Therefore it is pious duty of every individual to strife for conserving and protecting water bodies.
In the 3rd session, Prof. S. N. Upadhyay gives introductory lecture on waste water treatment. He described al essential features for any treatment plant. He also presented a brief overview of various treatment technologies used in the world.
Participants also interacted with Prof. S.N. Gaur a noted social activist working to save the local water bodies- Talabs & kunds of Varanasi. He updated the participants of the importance of saving and reviving the talabs and kunds of Varanasi and its importance to the civil society.
Prof. S. N. Upadhyay, Prof. P. K. Mishra and Dr. N. L. Singh coordinated the sessions.
Day 5 – (25-05-2015)
In the 1st session, Dr. G P Singh, Community Medicine, IMS dwelt on application of statistical tool and technique on the data of water and waste water. He impressed upon the utility of these tools in developing correlation between parameters and selection of representative data out of the larger pool.
In the 2nd session, Prof. S. K. Mishra, Ex. Professor of Civil Engineering Department, elaborated on the history of water conservation and water supply across the world. He informed the participants that in all countries simple and effective water storage and supply systems were developed with examples from Mayan civilization (America), Harappan Civilization and Roman civilization, while talking about India he also cited example of water supply and storage system developed 2000-2500 years ago in places like Burhanpur (Maharashtra), Sringwepur (Uttar Pradesh), Dholwaria (Gujrat) etc. Talking about Varanasi, he highlighted the importance of Kunds, Ponds and natural storm water streams like – Godawari (Godowliya), Machhodari etc. Due to pressure of populations, greed for land, several of these ponds and kunds have been filled up and the remaining ones are vandalized. Elaborating on the history of water supply and water treatment systems he traced the history beginning 1892.
In the 3rd session, Prof. S. K. Sharma, Mining Engineering Department, IIT (BHU) Varanasi, deliberated on modelling of contaminants in the stream discharged. The difference between statistical analysis and modelling lies in requirement of lesser data in case of modelling. He said that if you can properly select the representative data, then with the proper modelling we can predict the larger behaviors of the stream. It saves lots energy, time and human resource.
Prof. P. K. Mishra and Dr. N. L. Singh coordinated the sessions.
Day 6 (26-05-2015)
In the 1st session, Prof Yogesh Sharma of Department of Chemistry, IIT (BHU) Varanasi, discussed about the increasing problem of metal accumulation in water bodies through domestic and industrial sources focusing on heavy metals. While talking about various methods for removing metals from water and wastewater Prof Sharma highlighted the role of advanced adsorbents like magnetic iron oxide nano-particles in water purification and metal removal using examples from his own research.
In the 2nd session, Prof Sayed Hadi Hasan of Department of Chemistry, IIT (BHU) Varanasi, talked about the availability of water resources on the earth and its use in domestic, domestic and industrial sectors. Talking on the rising level of arsenic in ground water in several states of India including UP, he explained the various physical, chemical and biological processes which are responsible for rising arsenic level in ground water. While talking about various methods being used or developed for removing arsenic he emphasized on the removal through adsorption using nano-particles.
In the 3rd session, Dr Amitava Rakshit of Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry, Banaras Hindu University, highlighted the role of several plant species and their components in water remediation. He informed the participants that various components of drum-stick plant (fruit to bark and leaves) can be effectively used for removing various pollutants from both domestic and industrial wastewaters. He also discussed some of his own results.
Prof S N Upadhyay and Dr Pradeep Srivastava coordinated the lectures and various sessions.
Day 7 – (27-05-2015)
In the 1st session, Dr P K Chakraborty, Coordinator-Computer Center, BHU, Varanasi, discussed the importance and role of computers in handling huge volume of data. Since in most pollution related information analysis problems huge volume of raw data is to be processed, computers can play a major role in analyzing the data and coming out with useful information. He demonstrated the power of computers in handling and treating air and water pollution related data.
In the 2nd session, Prof Devendra Mohan, Head, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT (BHU) Varanasi, explained the meaning of self-purification capacity of a river and its importance in preserving the river water quality. He explained in a lucid manner, the role of dissolved oxygen and volumetric flow rate in keeping the river clean.
In the 3rd session, Dr. Kavita Shah, Institute of Sustainable Development, Banaras Hindu University, talked about water and its role in sustainable development. She also highlighted the mounting pollution of Ganga at Varanasi and its effect on aqualtic species like fresh water dolphins, fish etc.
At the end of the day Prof S N Upadhyay, Department of Chemical Engineering & Technology, explained the role of material balance in assessing the increasing volume of polluted water and level of pollutants. Work-sheet were distributed to the participants for solving numerical problems based on the basics of material balance.
Prof P K Mishra and Dr. Pradeep Srivastava coordinated the lectures.
Day 8 – (28-05-2015)
In the first lecture Dr Gopal Nath, Department of Microbiology, IMS, BHU talked about increasing level of pathogenic microorganisms responsible for causing water borne diseases like dysentery, cholera, hepatitis, etc and the sources from which these are coming in the surface and ground water. He also described various methods which are being used for measuring the level of these organisms.
In the second lecture Prof Devendra Mohan, Head, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT(BHU) talked about rising levels of arsenic and fluoride in ground and surface water sources. He discussed in detail the reasons and sources for their increasing levels and also discussed the indigenous technologies that has been developed for removing arsenic and fluoride from contaminated water.
In the third lecture Dr Lalit Varsney, Head, Radiation Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai talked about an indigenous radiation technology developed by his division for hygienesing municipal sewage sludge to make in free from pathogens and several other contaminating species such as drugs and antibiotics. He also informed that Ahemadabad Municipal Corporation has signed and MOU for using this technology. This is already being used on large scale for sterilizing medical and food products.
In the last lecture Dr Dharmendra Mishra of Kashi Yog and Moolya Shiksha, Varanasi described the efforts being made by him and his group in Mahoba for water harvesting and storage. Prof P K Mishra and Dr Pradeep Srivastava coordinated the lectures.
Day 9 – (29-05-2015)
On the ninth day, an interactive session on the sewage, solid waste and water supply problems of Varanasi was organized for the benefit of Office bearers and members of Varanasi Nagar Nigam. Shri Ram Gopal Mohale, Mayor Varanasi and a large number of corporators participated in this interactive session. Shri S K Kasyap, DRM, NER, Shri B P Singh, Divisional Mechanical Engineer, NER and Shri S P Srivastava, Secretary, Jal Sansthan were special invitees.
The program started with Kulgeet. In the beginning Prof P K Mishra welcomed all the invitees and informed about the objective of this interaction meeting. Dr Pradeep Srivastava elaborated about the activities of MCIIE and welcomed all invitees. Prof P K Mishra while talking about the problems of Varanasi suggested that instead of looking outside we should look inside and come-up with indigenous solutions for water & waste water management and solid waste management in the city. Prof. Mishra came forward with 3 possible models which could be implemented in Varanasi. These are “The Bioboxx technology for solid waste management” through which both Inorganic and organic waste could be treated. By processing organic waste from 2000-2500 households on daily basis it is capable of full-filling daily cooking requirement of 179 households. Also is capable of lighting around 1000 households with 2 LED x 10W for 5 hours a day and would be able to generate sufficient bio-manure for the yearly need of 1 acre farm / horticulture land in every 5 days. The next technology discussed was that of “The Governance for Ecological Restoration of polluted rivers & lakes”. Under this concept an aim to revitalize the self-purification capacity of water bodies is set. This would not require creation of any infrastructure per se. The specific targets in this concept are that of reduction in methane gas, reduction in nitrate concentration, Elimination of fecal coli-forms. This could be achieved through creating Eco-filtration bank, construction of wet-lands, in-stream green bridge filter etc. The last technology presented was that of “Sewage treatment to attain sustainable built environment” which Aims at decentralized waste management using integrated water, waste, energy & environment management solutions or in other words create eco-infrastructure. This concept works on 3 R – Reduce, Re-use, Recycle.
Mayor Shri Ram Gopal Mohale speaking on this occasion said that Varanasi is the cultural and spiritual centre of the world. However since independence adequate work for water and waste water management and waste management has not been undertaken here. He said the in all sectors in the country not experts of the field but IAS officers voice their suggestions and take decisions and this has been one of the reasons for roll out of irrelevant plans and schemes which ultimately fails. He added that for making effective programmes, practitioners and experts needs to come together and work in tandem.
Putting forward his point Shri S.K. Kashyap, DRM (NER) said Railway uses water in large quantities in its yards, in cleaning of rail etc. till now traditionally the waste water is being disposed in natural ponds and water bodies in vicinity. However with rapid urbanization, as the ponds and natural water bodies are vanishing, in future the disposal of water water is bound to be a big problem for railways. He appealed to the representatives of Nagar Nigam that somehow these natural ponds must be protected in the city.
Dr Lalit Varsney, Head, Radiation Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai talked about the indigenous radiation technology developed by his division for hygienesing municipal sewage sludge to make in free from pathogens and several other contaminating species such as drugs and antibiotics. He also informed that Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation has signed and MOU for using this technology. This is already being used on large scale for sterilizing medical and food products.
In the after-noon session Dr S Venkat Mohan (Bhatnagar Prize -2014) of Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad, described in detail how biodegradable solid waste, sewage and industrial waste can be converted into energy (bio gas, hydrogen, electricity, etc), plastics and other value added chemicals with the help of microbes. He also informed that even carbon dioxide present in air and responsible for global warming can be utilized for treating wastes and reducing its concentration and thereby reducing global warming.
Dr Pradeep Shrivastava and Dr Nand Lal Singh coordinated the proceedings.
Day 10 – (30-05-2015)
In the 1st session, Prof V K Chandola, Department of Farm Engineering, Institute of Agricultural Sciences talked about the requirements of water in agriculture sector. He emphasized that if the treated domestic and industrial waste water has been treated properly, it can serve not only as irrigation water but can also meet the requirements of micro nutrients to a great extent. He, however, emphasized that the nature of the crop, soil characteristics and type of irrigation method will determine which type of waste water should be used where.
In the 2nd session, Dr S Venkat Mohan (Bhatnagar Prize -2014) of Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad, described in detail how aerobic and anaerobic microbial activities coupled with photosynthetic process can be exploited for producing electricity, enhancing biomass, hydrogen, and algal bio diesel production etc. besides reducing COD to a high level.
In the 3rd session, Dr Meghal A Desai, Assistant Professor, SVNIT, Surat talking about sustainable development elaborated the concepts of green chemistry and green engineering using suitable examples from the chemical industries. He informed the participants that alternative raw material, less energy consuming processes, efficient catalysts, new separation methods, all have critical role in the emerging concepts of green chemistry and green engineering.
In the after-noon session Shri A K Jade, former senior technical assistant of the Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, described the role of water quality criteria and waste water standards and demonstrated through experiments the method of their measurements. The participants performed some of the experiments like zone settling, total dissolved solids, chloride content, dissolved oxygen and COD experiments themselves in separate batches.
Prof S N Upadhyay, Prof. Devendra Mohan, Dr. Pradeep Shrivastava and Dr. Nand Lal Singh coordinated the proceedings.
Day 12 – (01-06-2015)
On the 12th day of the 16-day Summer School-cum-Workshop running in the Malaviya Center for Innovation, Incubation and Entrepreneurship (MCIIE), IIT(BHU) Varanasi Dr. Virendra Kumar, Department of Environmental Science, Indira Gandhi National Tribal University, Amarkantak, Madyhya Pradesh talked on application of wetlands for waste water treatment. This technology can easily be utilized for rural sectors; even disinfection can be done in situ.
In the second lecture Prof P. K. Mishra, Department of Chemical Engineering & Technology, IIT(BHU)Varanasi discussed various engineered systems such as aeration, coagulation, flocculation, filtration and disinfection being used in water treatment plants. He emphasized that these are effectively the same processes which are used by nature in purifying polluted water. As an introduction to this lecture Prof S N Upadhyay briefly described the water purification and water supply system currently in use in urban areas.
In the after-noon session Shri A K Jade, former senior technical assistant of the Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology described the role of water quality criteria and waste water standards and demonstrated through experiments the method of their measurements. The participants performed some of the experiments like zone settling, total dissolved solids, chloride content, dissolved oxygen and COD experiments themselves in separate batches.
Prof S N Upadhyay, Prof. Devendra Mohan, Prof. P. K. Mishra and Dr Nand Lal Singh coordinated the proceedings.
Day 13 – (02-06-2015)
On the 13th day, Prof Govind Mishra, Department of Civil Engineering, Madan Mohan Malaviya University of Technology discussed the water use pattern in various sectors and informed the participants that there is a need to use water carefully. While discussing the various technologies currently in use for treating domestic sewage, Prof. Pandey highlighted the positive features of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket UASB) units such as low land area requirement, suitability for concentrated waste waters etc.
In the second lecture Prof R. P. Singh, Department of Civil Engineering, MNNIT, Allahabad delivered a comprehensive lecture on mathematical modeling of biological waste water treatment systems which may be utilized for different types of biological treatment of waste waters.
In the third lecture, Dr Pradeep Srivastava of the School of Biochemical Engineering, IIT(BHU) Varanasi compared the status of river Thames and Ganges and emphasized that using an appropriate technology even river Ganges can be cleaned.
In the post-lunch session Prof S N Upadhyay presented an overview of the domestic waste water treatment system being used for treating waste waters from large communities. He informed the participants about the type of treatment technology being used at DLW, Bhagwanpur and Deenapur, Varanasi.
In the after-noon session Shri A K Jade, former senior technical assistant of the Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology supervised the estimation of waste water parameters by the participants.
Prof S N Upadhyay, Prof. Devendra Mohan, Prof. P. K. Mishra and Dr Nand Lal Singh coordinated the proceedings.
Day 14 – (03-06-2015)
On the 14th day 9:00 AM, all the participants along with Prof. S N Upadhyay, Prof. P K Mishra, Dr Nand Lal Singh and Dr. Awdhesh Dixit reached to ‘Swachha Ganga Foundation’ at Tulsi Ghat, Varanasi for demonstration on water sampling.
Initially, participants were explained about the details of sampling protocol and methodology. Especially, BOD, DO, Turbidity, Fecal Coliform, temperature and pH protocols were discussed and demonstrated. Mr. Gopal Pandey and Ramchander Majhi demonstrated the use of depth sampler for collection of water sample from the river Ganges.
Thereafter, the group went to Bhagwanpur Sewage Treatment Plant having 8 MLD capacity. The total sewage treatment capacity of Varanasi city which includes Bhagwanpur, Dinapur and DLW, is about 100 MLD, whereas, the city discharges approximately 350 MLD sewage. It means we are disposing sewage untreated to the river Ganges approximately 250 MLD through different ‘Nalas’ such as Assi, Telia Nala etc. The participants visited the plants and tried to understand each step involved in sewage treatment. Such as, grit removal, screening, clarification, aeration and sludge digestion. Mr. Shantanu of the plant and Prof. Upadhyay explained the processes and certified the queries of the participants.
After completing field visit the group came back to MCIIE and treatment strategies for pharmaceutical waste water was discussed in depth by Prof S N Upadhyay. As there was no noticeable work done in this area, this was to encourage the participants to pursue research work to find out solution to the problem.
Prof S N Upadhyay, Prof. P. K. Mishra and Dr Nand Lal Singh coordinated the proceedings.
Day 15 – (04-06-2015)
On the 15th day of the 16-day Summer School-cum-Workshop running in the Malaviya Center for Innovation, Incubation and Entrepreneurship (MCIIE), IIT (BHU) Varanasi, Prof. R A Pandey, Senior Scientist, National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Nagpur, talked about increasing level of pharmaceuticals and antibiotics in water bodies and efforts being made to reduce their level using advanced treatment technologies. He discussed in detail the advantages and disadvantages of membrane bioreactors for removing these pollutants.
In the post lunch session participants made presentations on this year’s theme topic of the ‘World Environment Day’.
Prof S N Upadhyay, Prof. P. K. Mishra, Prof. R A Pandey and Dr. Nand Lal Singh coordinated the sessions.
Day 16 – (04-06-2015)
The valedictory function of the Summer School cum Workshop on Water and Waste water Treatment (SSWWWT-2015) and the World Environment day was organised at the training hall of Malaviya Centre for Innovation Incubation and Entrepreneurship (MCIIE) at IIT (BHU) Varanasi.
The Varanasi Local Centre (VLC) of Institute of Engineers (IE) also joined for the World Environment day programme.
The programme began with a dance drama presented by artists of Prerna Kala Manch on theme of Gang named “Ganaga and Gangi”. Through this dance drama they portrayed the apathy of administration and public towards the holy Ganges.
In the second programme Prof. Sangeeta Pandit and her students presented recitation of poem on Ganga by Pt. Hari Ram Dwivedi. Also they through classical music they took the audiences through seasons in year.
Ms. Divyanshi Singh, a school kid, shared her views on water. Er. Sanjay Singh, Secretaty VLC (IE) informed all of the activities that his centre undertakes. Prof. N. C. Karmakar presented relevance of the conservative use of natural resources in present context.
Sh. Vijay Krishna, Sh. Sajal, Ms. Ipshita Nandi amd Ms. Ishita Mishra presented their feedback on the programme on behalf of all the participants.
Prof. V.B.Singh Chief Guest for the programme appreciated the organizers on this pertinent initiative. Prof. S.N. Upadhyay gave his presidential remarks and Dr. N. L. Singh gave vote of thanks.